UK Prison Population Statistics: “The average annual prison population quadrupled between 1900 and 2019, going from just over 17,400 to around 82,900. The prison population was relatively stable between 1915 and 1945. From 1940 the prison population grew steadily, although there was a small period in the early 1990s when it decreased for four consecutive years before rising steeply again in the subsequent decade. Since 2010, the average prison population has remained relatively stable. The UK general population also grew during this time. To put the numbers in context, in 1900 there were 86 prisoners per 100,000 people in the general population and in 2018 there were 173 per 100,000. The lowest rate recorded was at the start of the 1940s when there were around 33 prisoners per 100,000 people.”
The History of Judicial Independence in England and Wales: We take judicial independence so much for granted in this country that it is useful to consider that it developed in its present form only 300 years ago, and that it is only in very recent years that we have possessed a judiciary as strong as we have today. In my contacts with the judiciary of the emerging democracies in Central and Eastern Europe I have often reverted to the lessons I endeavoured to set out in this essay, particularly in the closing sections in which I described some of the developments since the Act of Settlement changed the landscape for good.